달력

102010  이전 다음

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LINK : http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1064984

ACM/Usenix International Conference On Virtual Execution Environments
Proceedings of the 1st ACM/USENIX international conference on Virtual execution environments, Aravind Menson, Jose Renato Santos, Yoshio Turner, G Janakiraman, Willy Zwaenepoel ( HP Labs )

Abstract
Virtual Machine (VM) environments (e.g., VMware and Xen) are experiencing a resurgence of interest for diverse uses including server consolidation and shared hosting. An application's performance in a virtual machine environment can differ markedly from its performance in a non-virtualized environment because of interactions with the underlying virtual machine monitor and other virtual machines. However, few tools are currently available to help debug performance problems in virtual machine environments.In this paper, we present Xenoprof, a system-wide statistical profiling toolkit implemented for the Xen virtual machine environment. The toolkit enables coordinated profiling of multiple VMs in a system to obtain the distribution of hardware events such as clock cycles and cache and TLB misses. The toolkit will facilitate a better understanding of performance characteristics of Xen's mechanisms allowing the community to optimize the Xen implementation.We use our toolkit to analyze performance overheads incurred by networking applications running in Xen VMs. We focus on networking applications since virtualizing network I/O devices is relatively expensive. Our experimental results quantify Xen's performance overheads for network I/O device virtualization in uni- and multi-processor systems. With certain Xen configurations, networking workloads in the Xen environment can suffer significant performance degradation. Our results identify the main sources of this overhead which should be the focus of Xen optimization efforts. We also show how our profiling toolkit was used to uncover and resolve performance bugs that we encountered in our experiments which caused unexpected application behavior.

필요 문맥 정리
[해결 방안 제시 - abstract]
 We user our toolkit to analyze performance overheads incurred by networking applications running in Xen VMs
[문제 제기를 위한 예 제시]
 2. Motivating example
[해결 방안 제시 및 설명]
 3.2 OProfile
 OProfile is a system-wide statistical profiling tool for Linux System ( 대상을 명확히 한다. )
[진행 방법 설명]
 Profiling with OProfile operates as follows : 1.. 2.. 3.. ( 번호를 매겨 순서대로 대상을 명확히 정의 )
[비교 대상 정의]
 We first compare the performance of the receiver in th Xen-domain0 configuration with its performance in a baseline Linux system.
[비교 대상 정의 이름 통일화]
 guest 는 모두 Xen-Guest0 와 같이 정의 (명확히 함)
[테이블 설명]
 Table 5 gives the breakdown of instruction counts across the guest and driver domains and Xen for the three configuration.
[결과 정리]
 In summary, 1... 2... 3... 진행 방법 설명과 유사. 번호를 매겨서 확실히 함. 비교가 쉬움.

Posted by Teshi
LINK : http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1555384
ACM
Proceedings of the eleventh international joint conference on Measurement and modeling of computer systems 2009, Thomas Sandholm, Kevin Lai Hewlett-Packard Laboratories, Palo Alto, CA, USA

Abstract

We present a system for allocating resources in shared data and compute clusters that improves MapReduce job scheduling in three ways. First, the system uses regulated and user-assigned priorities to offer different service levels to jobs and users over time. Second, the system dynamically adjusts resource allocations to fit the requirements of different job stages. Finally, the system automatically detects and eliminates bottlenecks within a job. We show experimentally using real applications that users can optimize not only job execution time but also the cost-benefit ratio or prioritization efficiency of a job using these three strategies. Our approach relies on a proportional share mechanism that continuously allocates virtual machine resources. Our experimental results show a 11-31% improvement in completion time and 4-187% improvement in prioritization efficiency for different classes of MapReduce jobs. We further show that delay intolerant users gain even more from our system.

[측정 방법 설명]
To measure this effect, we introduce a total system efficiency metric that is based on th average ratio of actual application performance in a shared system to the application performance in a dedicated system.

[시나리오 설명]
2. Usage scenario
This section describes the usage scenario for the system described in this paper.

[질문을 제시하고 설명]
(1)How much do I want to spend?
.
(2) How do I want to spend?
.
(3)Should I spend more or less?

[수식 설명]
A rprivider allocates resource share qi to user i at time t as follows:[수식]

Posted by Teshi